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Toll Gate #3

Previous Glen Haven
New York, Albany County, Knox
Old Albany and Schoharie
Plank Road Passed Here
Between 1849 and 1866.
Wagons on Wood Planks Said
To Make a Thunderous Noise

(Roads & Vehicles) Includes location, directions, 5 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

The First Baptist Church of Painted Post

Previous Toll Gate #3
New York, Steuben County, Painted Post

has been placed on the
National Register
of Historic Places

by the United States
Department of the Interior

(Churches, Etc. • Man-Made Features) Includes location, directions, 2 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

Loomis Town Hall

California, Placer County, Loomis
Built in 1918, as the Bank if Loomis this building replaced the Bank of Loomis across the street, which is now the Nelthorpe and Sons building. Through the years, it became the Bank of America, the Bank of California, and then the office of the South Placer Municipal Utility District. The building was purchased by the Town of Loomis in 2008, and occupied as the new Town Hall in March, 2010.

It is built in the Classic Revival, or Neo Classicism style of architecture. The original front door has been replaced with a window, but the original clerestory above the door remains. The front has four rectangular columns, each topped with double scrolls and eagles. A triangular pediment centered over the original door contains a figure holding scales in one hand and a scroll in the other. The figure has two eagles at its feet. A bronze bench marker, number W45, and dated 1940 is on the lower front side. This is a Geological Survey marker and notes an elevation of 399 feet.

The interior still contains original frescoes high in four walls, displaying molded buffalo, Indian heads, and garlands.

(Notable Buildings) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

Civil War Memorial

New York, Steuben County, Painted Post

To the Soldier Dead of
the Town of Erwin
Erected A.D. 1913
Their deeds are held
in grateful memory

23rd. N.Y. — 112th. N.Y.
74th. N.Y. — 141st. N.Y.
86th. N.Y. — 161st. N.Y.
107th. N.Y. — 179th. N.Y.

6th. N.Y. — 10th. N.Y.

20th. N.Y.

50th. N.Y. Engineers

16th. Veteran Reserve Corps

(War, US Civil • Fraternal or Sororal Organizations • Man-Made Features • Patriots & Patriotism) Includes location, directions, 10 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

House of Bernal Diaz del Castillo

Guatemala, Sacatepéquez, Antigua Guatemala

Aqui estuvo ubicada la casa
donde vivio y escribio
el celebre soldado historiador
heroe de la conquista de
Mexico y Guatemala
Bernal Diaz de Castillo
autor de la
Verdadera Historia
de la Conquista de
Nueva España

English translation:
Here was located the house of
Bernal Diaz de Castillo,
the famous soldier-historian and hero of the conquest of Mexico and Guatemala. He wrote the True History of the Conquest of New Spain.

(Arts, Letters, Music • Wars, Non-US) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

People and Plants

Florida, Lee County, Fort Myers
The story of people and plants provides a continuous thread from the Calusa to early Estero Island settlers, and to the present and future generations. With all the great advances in science and technology, people still rely on natural resources to provide food, medicine, rules, building materials, textiles, and dyes.

Plants Fuel a Society
Fire is important to the development of cultures. The Calusa used fire to cook, and to help carve out logs to create canoes. Archaeologists who studied this shell mound gathered sample of the soil to be tested for botanicals. The test yielded 19,340 botanical items - 90% of which were charred wood. The most common was mangroves (77%), followed by pine or oak (21%). In addition to wood, researchers identified nut shells and nut meat, seeds and grass stems.

Edible Plants
The Calusa diet was centered on aquatic foods, yet research shows they also gathered seasonal nuts, seeds, and fruit. Nuts found during the excavation were primarily high protein acorns and 91% of seeds collected were saw palmetto seeds. Many of these seeds were found together indicating the Calusa gathered the seeds when seasonally available.

Frond Shelters
Whether it was the Calusa, or the Cuban fisherman who set up ranchos or coastal fishing camps, or the late 19th century settlers-everyone needed shelter. They survived by using natural materials to create protective structures. Palm fronds and tree trunks could be assembled together with twine made from Spanish moss. Perhaps their “houses” were similar to this circa 1910 palm shack. Records indicate that the first homesteader, Robert Gilbert, built a thatched structure on the mound site.

(Agriculture • Native Americans • Settlements & Settlers • Anthropology) Includes location, directions, 4 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

John Wesley Hardin

Florida, Escambia County, Pensacola
(side 1)
Texas fugitive, John Wesley Hardin (1853-1895) was captured here on August 23, 1877. Hardin was wanted and dangerous, and his capture became national news that brought notoriety to Pensacola. Hardin had reportedly killed 27 men. He bragged he had killed 40 men "all in self-defense," including one for snoring too loud. Texas Rangers Lt. John B. Armstrong and Jack R. Duncan along with the Sheriff of Escambia County, William H. Hutchinson, and nine deputies apprehended Hardin and his associates at the L&N Freight Depot as they boarded a train bound for Pollard, Alabama. When approached by Sheriff Hutchinson, Hardin tried to draw a revolver but was overpowered. Deputy Martin Sullivan shot and killed one of Hardin's accomplices as he tried to escape. Hardin was returned to Texas and found guilty of killing Comanche County Deputy Charles Webb. He was sentenced to 25 years in the Texas State Penitentiary, but was pardoned after serving 17 years by Governor James Stephen Hogg and thereafter practiced law in El Paso, Texas. On August 9, 1895 Hardin was shot and killed while playing dice in El Paso.

(side 2) Those who participated in the capture of
John Wesley Hardin
August 23, 1877

Texas Rangers
Lieutenant John Barclay Armstrong
John Riley Duncan

Escambia County Sheriff's Office
Sheriff William H. Hutchinson
Deputy Martin Sullivan • Deputy A.J. "Ace" Perdue
Deputy E.R. Payne • Deputy John Bard
Deputy William McKinney • Deputy M.L. Davis
Deputy Richard L. Campbell • Deputy Joseph Commyns
Deputy John E. Callaghan

The Superintendent of the Pensacola & Atlantic Railroad, William D. Chipley, provided special rail transport to the Rangers and valuable intelligence on the location of Hardin. Chipley later became a Pensacola mayor and state senator.

A Florida Heritage Site
Sponsored by Escambia County Sheriff's Office
Sheriff David Morgan, UWF Historic Trust, Mr. Joe Ulery

(Notable Persons) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Louisiana, East Baton Rouge Parish, Baton Rouge
Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College began as the Louisiana State Seminary of Learning and Military Academy, opening its door for the first session on January 2, 1860 at Pineville, LA.

William Tecumseh Sherman was the first President. He resigned before the start of the second session to take a command in the Union Army at the outbreak of the Civil War. The student body joined the Confederate forces.

The seminary was closed during the war and was reopened in 1865 under the leadership of David French Boyd, a member of the original five-man faculty.

A four year period of post war hardships was climaxed in 1869 by a fire which destroyed the seminary building. Classwork was resumed two weeks later in a building housing the State School for the Deaf in Baton Rouge.

In 1870 the seminary was designated as the Louisiana State University and seven years later the university and the Agricultural and the Mechanical College, which previously had been located in New Orleans, were merged.

In 1886 the University was moved to the Pentagon Barracks historic military post situated on the grounds of the present State Capitol.

Steady growth of its student body and extension services led to the building of this "Greater University", envisioned by the President Thomas Duckett Boyd and made a reality by Governor John M. Parker, during whose administration construction of this campus was begun in 1922. The site was formally dedicated on April 30. 1926. The transition from the old campus to the present one was completed in 1932.

(Education • War, US Civil) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

Louisiana State Seminary of Learning Foundation Stone

Louisiana, East Baton Rouge Parish, Baton Rouge
This stone came from the foundation of the first building erected for the university, then called the Louisiana State Seminary of Learning located near Alexandria, LA. This building was constructed in 1859 and was occupied by the seminary from January 2, 1860 to October 15, 1869, when it was destroyed by fire.

(Education) Includes location, directions, 2 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

Land Grant College / Sea Grant College

Louisiana, East Baton Rouge Parish, Baton Rouge
(plaque 1)
Land Grant College

Congress, through the Morrill Act of of 1862, donated 210,000 acres of public land to Louisiana to provide a college "For the benefit of Agriculture and the Mechanical Arts." The land and underlying conditions were accepted by the State in 1869.

The General Assembly established the Louisiana State Agricultural and Mechanical College (at New Orleans) in 1874 and named it the recipient of the Morrill Land Grant.

The A&M College and LSU were "united" in 1877 to become the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, with the combined school continuing to serve as Louisiana's Land Grant College.

(plaque 2) In accordance with the National Sea
Grant Improvement Act of 1976

Louisiana State University
and Agricultural
and Mechanical College
is designated a

Sea Grant College

for sustained excellence in research,
education, and public service dedicated to
wise use of America's marine resources

August, 1978

(Agriculture • Education • Science & Medicine • Environment) Includes location, directions, 4 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

Mestrovic Court

Louisiana, East Baton Rouge Parish, Baton Rouge
Ivan Mestrovic was the most prominent figure among Yugoslav sculptures of the current century, and he has a special niche in his country's history of art.

The creative activity of this prolific artist won a name for him throughout the world. He is represented in most major European and American galleries. Mestrovic was born at Vrpolje in 1883 and died in America in 1962. He is buried in his native Yugoslavia in a mausoleum he designed.

(Arts, Letters, Music) Includes location, directions, 2 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

Flag of West Florida

Louisiana, East Baton Rouge Parish, Baton Rouge
Under authority of the West Florida Convention, troops commanded by Philemon Thomas captured the Spanish fort and Governor at Baton Rouge September 23, 1810. The independent Republic of West Florida was established and it's blue flag with a white star flew here until Governor W.C.C. Claiborne with U.S. troops occupied Baton Rouge and raised the Stars and Stripes.

(Settlements & Settlers) Includes location, directions, 4 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

Flag of the Confederate States of America

Louisiana, East Baton Rouge, Baton Rouge
Louisiana seceded from the Union January 26, 1861, and a blue pelican flag replaced the U.S. flag. The National Flag of Louisiana, adopted February 12, 1861, became the second state flag until Louisiana joined the Confederacy March 21, there were four official Confederate flags, but the most popular was the unofficial battle Flag. On May 9, 1862, Federal forces raised the U.S. Flag once again in Baton Rouge.

(War, US Civil) Includes location, directions, 4 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

Courthouse Park

New York, Steuben County, Corning

Given by the Corning Co. this land, first the Public Square, then Canfield Park, has hosted a school, parks, churches, and a courthouse.

(Man-Made Features • Notable Places) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

Flag of the State of Louisiana

Next Loomis
Louisiana, East Baton Rouge Parish, Baton Rouge
The first usage of the Pelican Flag as emblematic of Louisiana in unknown, but references to flags with a pelican design were made long before the Civil War. The flag was officially adopted by the State Legislature July 1, 1912. On the flag appears Louisiana's motto: Union, Justice, Confidence.

(Settlements & Settlers) Includes location, directions, 4 photos, GPS coordinates, map.


California, Placer County, Loomis
Named Afer
James Oscar Loomis
1830 – 1895

This community was founded in 1850 and originally named “The Grove” by gold miners who settled along Secret Ravine one mile east of here.
Forming a thriving community with the population exceeding 1500. In 1861 the name was changed to “Placer”, then changed again the following year to “Smithville”.
After the arrival of the Central Pacific Railroad, the town moved to this present location in 1869 and named “Pino”. On May 28, 1890 the town was given its name after Mr. Loomis, a popular citizen who served as Postmaster, railroad express agent, store and saloon keeper.
Dates and names were authenticated by the U.S. Post Office Dept., Washington, D.C.

(Notable Places) Includes location, directions, 5 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

First Presbyterian Church

Previous Loomis
New York, Steuben County, Corning

Organized August 19, 1812, this structure, constructed of local stone in 1867, is the oldest church building in Corning.

(Churches, Etc. • Settlements & Settlers • Man-Made Features) Includes location, directions, 2 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

Loomis - Transcontinental Railroad

California, Placer County, Loomis
The western branch of the Transcontinental Railroad, the Central Pacific, laid track to this exact point on May 21, 1864.

The Central Pacific met its eastern counterpart, the Union Pacific Railroad, at Promontory Summit, Utah, on May 10, 1869.

These tracks carried carloads of Loomis fruit throughout the United States for nearly 100 years.

(Railroads & Streetcars) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

History of Saltville Valley

Virginia, Smyth County, near Saltville
The Saltville Valley contains fossils of large mammals that lived in North America about 13,000 years ago (during Pleistocene times). Fossils discovered here show that this valley has provided a rich environment for thousands of years. Many life forms were attracted to its floor. The story of its past can be found in the layers of soil here.

What attracted animals to the valley? Under the valley floor lies the remains of an old riverbed, estimated to be from 27,000 to 14.006 years old. This vanished river is called the Saltville River. The riverbed was lined with shale covered by slits, sands, and fingernail clams. Bones and tooth fossils show scrapes from being washed down the river. -

An abundance of salt was present in the river and deep in the ground, this attracted animals. Thus, Saltville was once called Buffalo Lick or Salt Lick.

Over time the Saltville River backed up, creating a shallow lake named Lake Totten. At about the same time, plant life on the mountain slopes also changed. Spruce forests, ponds, and prairies dotted the valley landscape before the growth of the hardwood forests of today.

In time the mud deposits changed the upper end of the valley into a marsh and the amount of open water decreased. These stream and lake deposits created the conditions required to preserve the remains of plants and animals.

In 1782, Thomas Jefferson received a letter from Arthur Campbell stating that in the Saltville Valley there were “bones of an uncommon size.” Enclosed was a jaw tooth of a mastodon from the valley.

Many other species have been found since this first discovery. The third most nearly complete skeleton of an extinct musk ox known in North America was found here, along with tracks left by a ground sloth. Many other fossils were found, including woolly mammoth stag-moose, caribou, fish, plants, turtles, and snakes. They inform us about the diverse and ever-changing environment in this area.

Early people were also attracted to the valley. Excavations nearby have discovered PaleoIndian fluted projectile points. Other finds suggest that humans were in the valley beginning 10,500 to 9000 years ago. The Indians must have found the valley abundant with food, including the animals drinking from the lake and feeding in the marshes.

European colonization of the Americas brought the English, who first surveyed the area in 1753. In the 1840s the remaining lake was drained, and the valley became the marshy area you now see. The salt industry flourished after settlement, and later came the Civil War and industrialization.

As we move into the future, the Virginia Museum of Natural History will continue its exavations to find more clues revealing the Saltville Valley’s rich past.

(Natural Resources • Environment • Notable Places) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

Bovina United Methodist Church

Texas, Parmer County, Bovina
The town of Bovina was organized in the early 20th century in the heart of the "XIT" Ranch on the Pecos Valley Railway. Soon after its establishment, a Methodist church was founded with nine charter members. The Rev. V. H. Trammell, who served as pastor from 1905 until 1908, helped organize the congregation and held services one Sunday a month.

Members of the Bovina Methodist Church first met in a one-room schoolhouse. In 1910, during the pastorate of the Reverend J. A. Sweeney (d. 1919), the congregation constructed its first sanctuary across the street from this site. Much of the money raised to help build the structure came from cowboys on area ranches. The church hired its first full-time pastor during the 1940's.

As the oldest Methodist congregation in Parmer County, Bovina Methodist Church has a long history of providing service and leadership to the community and the surrounding farming and ranching area. With its emphasis on Christian education, youth ministry, and music, the congregation continues to uphold the ideals and traditions of its founders.

(Churches, Etc.) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.
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