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History happened here.

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  • 11/30/15--15:21: Bovina Cemetery
  • Texas, Parmer County, Bovina
    Prior to the founding of the city of Bovina, the XIT Ranch located its southern headquarters in this vicinity. The Pecos and Northern Texas Railway built through the ranch in 1898, and the settlement became known as Bull Town because of cattle frequently found on the tracks. A community developed around the railhead, and in January 1899 the official post office name became Bovina. Due to a boom in cattle shipping, the town's population began to grow after the turn of the 20th century. Since then, the city has owned this cemetery, which was maintained for a time by the Bovina Cemetery Association.

    The XIT Ranch initially used this site for burials of cowboys. Oral tradition holds that several grave markers initially bore only common names of the cowboys, such as Dusty and Big Jim. It is believed there were approximately 40 such graves, but all are now unmarked. The earliest marked grave is that of J.W. McDonald (d. 1907). Bovina Cemetery is the final resting place of veterans of military conflicts dating to World War I, as well as generations of area residents.

    Historic Texas Cemetery – 2004

    (Cemeteries & Burial Sites) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 11/30/15--15:33: Gilbreath-Cowsert House
  • Texas, Castro County, Dimmitt
    Tennessee native Jeff T. Gilbreath moved his family to this area in 1905. The owner of a local mercantile store, he built this house in 1909. He sold it in 1910 to county attorney Mark Cowsert, whose family lived here until 1912. The house changed ownership a number of times before the Castro County Museum purchased it in 1976. A fine example of early 20th century vernacular housing, it features a bay window and hipped roof with gables.

    Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1991

    (Notable Buildings) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 11/30/15--15:45: Castro County Courthouses
  • Texas, Castro County, Dimmitt
    This site was set aside as the Dimmitt town square in 1891, the year Castro County was formally organized. Temporary court facilities were set up in J. N. Morrison's office while the first courthouse was built. An ornate two-story structure, it burned in 1906 after being hit by lighting. A brick courthouse with a central dome, built in 1908, was dedicated at a community picnic. It served until the 1930s, but was razed to make room for the present stone building. Built with Works Progress Administration labor, Castro County's third courthouse opened in 1939.

    Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986

    (Notable Buildings) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 11/30/15--15:53: Shoot-out on Jones Street
  • Texas, Castro County, Dimmitt
    At an 1891 meeting to discuss the selection of a Castro County seat, words were exchanged between Ira Aten, a retired Texas Ranger speaking on behalf of Castro City, and Andrew McClelland, a spokesman for Dimmitt. The inflammatory remarks led to a gunfight between the two men on December 23, five days after Dimmitt was chosen county seat. In an exchange of shots in the middle of Jones Street, Aten wounded Andrew McClelland and his brother Hugh. Aten was acquitted of the assault charges and a short time later was appointed Castro County Sheriff.

    (Politics) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 11/30/15--16:00: Summerfield-Dameron Corner
  • Texas, Castro County, near Dimmitt
    In 1876, English native John Summerfield (1885-1918) began his work locating and surveying millions of acres of land in present-day Randall, Deaf Smith, Castro and Swisher counties. One of the earth monuments he erected that year was located near this site and became a starting point for surveys in many Panhandle counties. In 1925, a group of Castro County citizens placed a concrete monument at the site, which had become known as Dameron's Corner after a local landowner. The monument was buried in 1958 when a road was cut through the area.

    (Landmarks) Includes location, directions, 2 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 11/30/15--16:22: Home Mercantile
  • Texas, Castro County, Nazareth
    For 90 years, starting in 1905, Nazareth residents purchased goods here. The original wood-framed structure, built by Fred Heidgerken with living quarters above, opened its main floor to home shopping needs and the storing and selling of fresh meat and dairy products, in 1928. Ed Kern and Conrad Schulte built a new brick and concrete building, the first in town, that came to include the post office from 1937-1980. The building also hosted such social activities as weekly poker games, amateur boxing matches, a community bulletin board, and occasional liquor sales from the back door. While the store closed in 1995, social and cultural events of the community continue to be celebrated here.

    (Industry & Commerce) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 11/30/15--16:32: Holy Family Catholic Church
  • Texas, Castro County, Nazareth
    The history of Holy Family Catholic Church parallels that of the town of Nazareth. The families of brothers V. A., J. A. and T. P. McCormick and other Irish families came to this area from New York in the early 1890s. The Rev. Joseph Reisdorff arrived in 1902 to establish a Catholic parish. Advertising in German-language newspapers in the U.S. Midwest, he induced many German Catholic families to settle here. Reisdorff named the new town Nazareth. An important part of the area's development, the church remains a focal point of community activities.

    (Churches, Etc.) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 11/30/15--17:10: Holy Family Cemetery
  • Texas, Castro County, Nazareth
    In 1902, Joseph Reisdorff, pastor and colonizer of Nazareth, devoted land donated by Wilhelmina Thier to be Holy Family Cemetery. First interment was the body of Anna Lackerman in August 1906. Reflecting Nazareth’s heritage, nine early tombstones bear German inscriptions. In the 1940s, additions included more property, the crucifixion statuary, pipe fencing, brick pillars, tree-lined walks, and an arched gateway. In 1985, the statue of the sacred heart of Jesus was placed in the east, and in 1995, the unborn children’s memorial in the west. In 2012, the New Jerusalem oratory was dedicated for visitors’ devotion and cemetery information. Notable interments include three priests and the only World War II death casualty, R.T. Dirks. Historic Texas Cemetery 2011
    Marker is property of the State of Texas

    (Cemeteries & Burial Sites) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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    Mexico, Distrito Federal, Ciuidad de Mexico

    Scientiaeqve amor salvs popvli est patriae
    Ad perennem memoriam pontificiae regiae Vniversitatis Caroli V ivssv ab excmo anto de Mendoza in hoc loco III ivnii MDLII erectae qvae ad annum MDCCCLXV vsquve florvit hoc monvmentvm vniversitas nationalis Mexicana DD

    English translation:
    Love of knowledge is the safety of the country
    This monument is erected to the perpetual memory of the Royal and Pontifical University founded in the time of Charles V under the Viceroy Mendoza on June 3, 1552 and that flourished here until 1865 as the National University of Mexico.

    (Colonial Era • Education • Arts, Letters, Music • Charity & Public Work) Includes location, directions, 2 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 11/30/15--18:05: Welcome to Multnomah Falls
  • Oregon, Multnomah County, near Corbett
    Visited by over two million people a year, Multhnomah Falls is the second-highest year-round waterfall in the United States and one of 77 on the Oregon side of the Columbia River Gorge. Multnomah Creek, created by underground springs from Larch Mountain, feeds the falls as it plunges off steep basalt cliffs The water flow varies, but is most spectacular in the winter and spring when at its fullest the falls plummet 543 feet to the upper plunge pool, descend another 69 feet, plus an additional 8 feet in between to total a 620-foot-fall! As our nation's western cities boomed in the late 1880s, people looked for ways to escape the bustle and overcrowding. Portland residents—and eventually visitors from all over the country—traveled to the Columbia River Gorge for its scenic beauty and towering waterfalls. Regularly scheduled trains and steamships filled with tourists navigated up and down the Gorge, and Multnomah Falls soon became a favorite attraction.

    The concrete bridge spans Multnomah Creek between the upper and lower cataracts of Multnomah Falls. The original bridge (shown) was built in the early 1880s out of log poles. After its collapse, the current bridge was built in 1914 and named for Simon Benson, a strong advocate for the Historic Colulmbia River Gorge Highway and Multnomah Falls.

    Multhnomah Falls Lodge, designed by noted Portland architect Albert E. Doyle, was built in 1925 by the city of Portland to capitalize on the booming tourist trade of the Columbia River Gorge. Today, the Lodge has a snack bar, gift shop, full-service restaurant, and a U.S. Forest Service interpretive center. It was placed on the National Register for Historic Places in 1981.

    (Natural Features) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 11/30/15--20:39: Norman Y. Mineta
  • Wyoming, Park County, near Ralston
    At this location, from 1942 to 1943,
    Norman Y. Mineta,
    Son of Kunisaku (Kay) and Kane Mineta and a U.S.
    Citizen, was interned by the United States Government.

    Harboring no bitterness, only an abiding love
    of his country, he went on to serve as a
    officer in the United States Army fro 1953 to 1956,
    a member of the United States Congress
    from 1975 to 1995, United States Secretary of
    Commerce from 2000 to 2001, and United States
    Secretary of Transportation from 2001 to 2006.

    "Commit yourself to public service, be accountable and accessible, and what happened here will never happen again." -- Norman Y. Mineta, July, 2006

    (Notable Persons) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 12/01/15--06:55: Grist Millstone
  • Pennsylvania, Bedford County, Bedford
    This millstone, which dates prior to the American Revolution, came from Dutch Corner in Bedford County. Jim Karns found it in 1985 while doing construction work near Imlertown. The mill from which it came is unknown. This stone, which weighs about 1000 pounds, was used for grinding corn, wheat, rye, and barley into flour. Joel and Rachel (Karns) Riggle donated the stone to the museum in 2012.

    (Colonial Era • Forts, Castles • Industry & Commerce) Includes location, directions, 6 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 12/01/15--07:01: Camp Mason & Dixon
  • Pennsylvania, Bedford County, Cumberland Valley Township
    From June 27-July 8, 1861 a newly formed brigade of 1,500 Union troops under Chas. J. Biddle consisting of the 5th and 13th (Bucktail Regiment) PA Reserves, and 1st PA Res. Artillery, encamped here while enroute to relieve Col. Lew Wallace’s 11th Indiana Regiment at Camp McGinnis in Federal occupied Cumberland, MD, a key Union Army railroad hub. Swampy ground, poor provisions and rampant illness resulting in two deaths, earned the site the appellation “Camp Misery and Despair”

    The Reserves left Camp Curtin in Harrisburg June 22, moved by rail to Huntingdon and Hopewell, marched 23 miles by way of Blood Run (Everett), and bivouacked at Camp McCall near Bedford Springs. Proceeding through Centerville they arrived here, near the state line June 27 and was ordered to halt. Nearly two weeks passed at Camp Mason & Dixon before Federal consent was given to proceed into MD.

    Tents were struck July 8, and Biddle’s troops occupied Wallace’s former post July 9. Bucktail scouting parties received the brigades “baptism of fire” July 14 while engaging the enemy at New Creek, VA. The brigade took positions in the Piedmont, Romney, and New Creek areas where several skirmishes ensued from July 15-27, when in pursuance of orders, they returned to Harrisburg.

    (War, US Civil) Includes location, directions, 2 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 12/01/15--07:09: Pennsylvania
  • Pennsylvania, Bedford County, Bedford
    Founded 1681 by William Penn as a Quaker Commonwealth.
    Birthplace of
    The Declaration of Independence
    The Constitution of the United States

    (Colonial Era • Politics) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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    Florida, Escambia County, Pensacola

    The Early Life of T. T. Wentworth, Jr.
    Theodore Thomas Wentworth Jr. was born July 26, 1898, in Mobile, Alabama, to Elizabeth Goodloe and T. T. Wentworth, Sr. In 1900, the Wentworth family moved to Pensacola.

    Young Tom helped supplement the family’s income by selling newspapers on Pensacola’s streets and working as a telegraph messenger and office boy. At age 12, he managed his father’s grocery store. At age 16, he started his own bicycle repair business, which soon expanded into a bicycle sales and sporting goods store.

    A Successful Run for Office
    In 1920, at age 22, Wentworth, Jr. ran for office as Escambia County Commissioner, District 1. After winning the election, he became the youngest county commissioner ever elected in Florida. From 1928-1940, Wentworth, Jr. served as Escambia County Tax Collector.

    Early Exhibits
    During the 1920s, Wentworth, Jr. set up exhibits from his collection of historical items in the shop windows of his bicycle store. In 1933, he became one of the original incorporators of the Pensacola Historical Society.

    Real Estate Ventures
    In 1945, Wentworth, Jr. ventured into real estate, and the property-appraising skills he had acquired as tax collector contributed to his success. In 1960, he was named Realtor of the Year by the Pensacola Board of Realtors.

    “Mr. History”
    Beginning in 1936, Wentworth, Jr delivered weekly talks over local radio station WCOA, and published articles, columns, magazines, and pamphlets filled with historical photos and documents. He teamed up with local artist and journalist Walter Overton to feature some of his museum items in Overton’s Southland Sketches.

    The First Wentworth Museum
    On April 7, 1957, the T. T. Wentworth, Jr. museum opened to the public in Ensley, just north of Pensacola.

    Through the years, the museum expanded twice to hold the ever-increasing collection. In 1983, Wentworth, Jr donated his 150,000-item collection to the State of Florida. It was the largest historical collection ever donated by a private individual, and was valued at several million dollars. He signed it over on two conditions-that his collection be housed in a permanent location and remain in Escambia County.

    Giving Back to Wentworth
    The city of Pensacola donated the old City Hall Building, built in 1907, to be used as the T.T. Wentworth, Jr. Florida State Museum. In 1988, at age 90, T. T. Wentworth, Jr. cut the ribbon, even as his health was failing. Less than a year later, ten days before his 91st birthday, Wentworth, Jr. passed away. He left his beloved Pensacola the gift of a lifetime - the gift of history.

    (Notable Persons) Includes location, directions, 9 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 12/01/15--07:23: Interpretive Sites
  • Mississippi, Lee County, Baldwyn

    Welcome to the Mississippi's Final Stands Interpretive Center. After visiting our museum gallery, we hope that you will tour the Brice's Crossroads and Tupelo battlefields for yourself, with the help of our audio tour and roadside signage.

    The terrain of the Brice's Crossroads battlefield is remarkably well preserved, allowing you to imagine easily what the Federal and Confederate troops saw and experienced on June 10, 1864. Preservation of the landscape at Brice's Crossroads is the result of ongoing efforts by the Civil War Trust and other public and private partners.

    While the city of Tupelo has grown and absorbed much of the battlefield from the Battle of Tupelo (also frequently called the Battle of Harrisburg), the Civil War Trust has acquired and preserved the July 15, 1864 skirmish site at the Old Town Creek.

    Follow the route marked on this map; there will be signs pointing the way. Stop at the marked pull-offs to read the panels and learn more about this chapter in Mississippi's history.

    As Union general William T. Sherman began his campaign to capture Atlanta, Georgia, he made plans to ensure that his fragile supply line in Tennessee would not be cut by Confederate raiders. To this end he ordered Union troops sent out of Memphis to occupy General Nathan Bedford Forrest in northeast Mississippi. The goal was to keep Forrest out of Tennessee and away from Sherman's supply lines. If Forrest could be defeated in the field, all the better.

    In the summer of 1864 Federal troops made multiple treks into this area, resulting in the Battle of Brice's Crossroads (June 10) and the Battle of Tupelo (July 13-15). The first was a humiliating defeat for the Union; the second, a convincing yet incomplete victory. Forrest emerged wounded but alive, his cavalry corps crippled but not destroyed. The Union did, however, accomplish the primary goal of keeping Forrest's cavalry in Mississippi until after Sherman had claimed a major victory in Atlanta.

    (War, US Civil) Includes location, directions, 12 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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    Florida, Escambia County, Pensacola

    T.T. Wentworth, Jr. Florida State Museum
    Built in 1907 during a downtown building boom, this building was originally City Hall. It is the earliest example of Mediterranean Revival architecture in Pensacola. In 1985, a new City Hall built on Main Street replaced this one, and the City donated the old building to the State of Florida to house the vast collection donated by local historian, entrepreneur, and politician T. T. Wentworth, Jr.

    T. T. Wentworth, Jr. never reused a donation, and he could tell people something about each of the more than 150,000 items in his collection. His museum became a “must state” attraction in Pensacola.

    Pensacola Children’s Museum
    Children can play in the Panton & Leslie Trading Post, keep house in colonial Lavalle Cottage, guard the outpost in a fort with a guard tower, play in a Native American chicken or sail away on the Galveston. The museum also offers a toddler play area and birthday party room.
    115 East Zaragoza Street, Pensacola, Fl 32502

    Colonial Archeological Trail
    Explore the footprints of Pensacola’s past from 1752-1821. A self-guided, interpreted walking tour winds through ruins of forts and other structures, including wells, kitchens, officers’ quarters, the British Government House, and historic St. Michael’s Cemetery. It ends at Fort Georgem the site of a Revolutionary War battle. Brochures are available inside the T.T. Wentworth, Jr. Florida State Museum and at the Tivoli High House, 205 East Zaragoza Street.

    Museum of Commerce & Museum of Industry
    Inside the museum of Commerce, take an indoor stroll down Palafox Street as it looked between 1890-1910. The museum is also home to an exhibit about the history of news papering and printing in northwest Florida.
    201 East Zaragoza Street, Pensacola, Fl 32502

    The Museum of Industry features permanent exhibits about the history of some of Pensacola’s industries including brick-making, fishing, lumbering, and railroads.
    200 East Zaragoza Street, Pensacola, Fl 32502

    (Settlements & Settlers) Includes location, directions, 11 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 12/01/15--07:36: Battle of Decatur
  • Alabama, Morgan County, Decatur

    The Battle of Decatur, Oct. 26-29, 1864, was the result of Confederate Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood's effort to move his army across the Tennessee River and into central Tennessee in an attempt to reclaim Nashville. The engagement occurred as part of the larger Franklin-Nashville Campaign. The Union garrison at Decatur, commanded by U.S. Brig. Gen. Robert S. Granger, prevented Hood from crossing and forced him to move his army westward and eventually cross the river at Tuscumbia some 40 miles away. Ultimately the engagement here would delay Hood's crossing of the Tennessee River and contribute to his failure in December to retake Nashville for the Confederacy. A lack of provisions for his starving army and stiff resistance put forth by Granger's garrison, combined with the arrival of two Union gunboats, convinced Hood and his superior, Confederate Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, who had arrived on the scene the night of Oct. 27, that further action against Decatur would be foolhardy. During the engagement, the South suffered approx. 450 casualties, whereas the Union lost 155 men.

    (War, US Civil) Includes location, directions, 5 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 12/01/15--07:45: Historic Downtown Biloxi
  • Mississippi, Harrison County, Biloxi
    The development of downtown Biloxi is a direct reflection of the economic growth of the city. During early and mid-19th century homes on small lots and hotels occupied the area. Attracted by the population density, merchants began to establish businesses along what was then the Pass Christian-Point Cadet Road, later called Howard Avenue, and Lameuse Street, concentrating near the beach and its incoming waterborn trade. The advent of the railroad in 1870 shifted economic growth northward toward the tracks. A series of devastating fires in 1889, 1894, 1900, however, destroyed the commercial-residential flavor of the area.

    The success of the Biloxi seafood industry during the late 19th century swelled the city's population. The two canning districts, Black Bay and Point Cadet, and the downtown area experienced the greatest population growth. Occurring during pre-automobile days, downtown expansion featured commercial structures on small lots with few parking facilities. The Biloxi Street Railway which connected the downtown area with Point Cadet, Black Bay, the front beach, and western points was the primary form of transportation.

    Development of the downtown area during the 20th century reflects the growth of Keesler Air Force Base and a thriving tourist industry. The devastation of Hurricane Camille in 1969 brought about its reorientation through Urban development and features a banking service center. Architecture is primarily Victorian or Eclectic, exhibiting a variety of imitated styles.

    (Industry & Commerce • Settlements & Settlers) Includes location, directions, 5 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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  • 12/01/15--07:54: City of Biloxi, Mississippi
  • Mississippi, Harrison County, Biloxi
    This plaque is dedicated to bring awareness to the surge and high water levels from Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Camille. Both storms brought about great devastation and loss of life to the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Hurricane Katrina made landfall on the Gulf coast on August 29, 2005 at 10:00 am. The storm surge level at this location was 22 feet above mean sea level, with reported waves reaching 34.1 feet. There was approximately 125 billion dollars of damage to the coast, leaving 236 people dead and 67 missing. Hurricane Camille made landfall on August 17, 1969 at about 11:30 pm. The storm surge level at this location was 19.5 feet. There was approximately 1.5 billion dollars of damage to the coast leaving 131 dead and 41 missing.

    High Water Marks: Katrina Red Marker, Camille Blue Marker and the Base Flood Elevation Black Marker (BFE 20ft)

    (Disasters) Includes location, directions, 3 photos, GPS coordinates, map.

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